Sergio Quesada-Vázquez, Gerard Aragonès, Josep M Del Bas, & Xavier Escoté
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD is principally characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in the hepatocytes. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers to modulate the composition of gut microbiota, which participate in different processes, affecting human metabolism. A disruption in the homeostasis of gut microbiota may lead to dysbiosis, which is commonly reflected by a reduction of the beneficial species and an increment in pathogenic microbiota. Gut and liver are in close relation due to the anatomical and functional interactions led by the portal vein, thus altered intestinal microbiota might affect liver functions, promoting inflammation, insulin resistance and steatosis, which is translated into NAFLD. This review will highlight the association between diet, gut microbiota and liver, and how this axis may promote the development of NAFLD progression, discussing potential mechanisms and alterations due to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Finally, it will revise the variations in gut microbiota composition in NAFLD, and it will focus in specific species, which directly affect NAFLD progression.